Friday, 3 February 2012

Pharm. D. 1st Prof. 1st Semester : Pharm. D. Syllabus (Hamdard University)

Pharm. D. First Professional
First Semester

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry – I (Theory)
PHC-301                                                                                                          Cr. Hrs. 3

1.      Basic Concepts: Conjugation, hyperconjugation, steric effect, inductive effect, mesomeric effect, hydrogen bonding, Theory of resonance. Effect of structure on reactivity of compounds. Tautomerism of carbonyl compounds.
2.      Nucleophilic and Electrophilic substitution reaction in aliphatic and aromatic systems.
3.      Orientation in electrophilic substitution reactions on benzene ring.
4.      Organic Reactions: Baeyer-Villiger oxidation; Diels Alder reaction; Grignard's reaction. Metal hydride reduction and Wolf Krishner reduction, Friedel Craft's reaction, Perkin reaction, Cannizzaro reaction.
5.      Carbonium ion Rearrangements: Pinacol-pinacolone, Wagner-Meerwein, Wolf, Hofmann and Beckmann rearrangements.
6.      Carbanions: Condensation reaction (Aldol condensation; Favorskii rearrangement; Witting reaction).

Pharmaceutical Chemistry:
Organic Chemistry (Lab)
PHC-303                                                                                                                      Cr. Hrs. 2

Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the topics covered in theory and availability of the facilities e.g,

1.      Organic analysis:
Identification of unknown simple organic compounds

2.      Organic Preparations:
2.1.     Benzole acid
2.2.     Aspirin
2.3.     Acetanilide
2.4.     Iodoform
2.5.     Nitrophenol
2.6.     3-nitrophthalic acid
2.7.     Benzhydrol
2.8.     2,4-Dinitro-chlorobenzen

Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Mathematics (Theory)
PHC-305                                                                                                                      Cr. Hrs. 3

1.      ALGEBRA
1.1.  Sets and Functions:
1.1.1.  Elementary concepts of sets
1.1.2.  Concept of Functions
1.1.3.  Domain and Range of a Function
1.1.4.  Different types of Functions
1.1.5.  Graphical representation of a function
1.1.6.  Some applications of Functions
1.2.  Solution of Linear and Quadratic Equations
1.2.1.  Equations reducible to Quadratic Form
1.2.2.  Solution of simultaneous Equations
1.3.  Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic Progressions & Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic Means
1.4.  Permutations and combinations
1.5.  Binomial Theorem: Simple application.

2.1.  Measurement of Angles in Radian and degrees
2.2.  Definitions of circular functions.
2.3.  Derivation of circular function for simple cases.

3.1.  Coordinates of point in a plane
3.2.  Distance between two points in a plane
3.3.  Locus
3.4.  Equations of straight line
3.5.  Equation of Parabola
3.6.  Circle and Ellipse

4.1.  Concept of Derivations
4.2.  Rules of Differentiation
4.3.  Examples on the evaluation of Derivations
4.4.  Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
4.5.  Partial Derivations. Higher Order Derivatives
4.6.  Maxima & Minima points of Inflections

5.1.  Concept of Integration
5.2.  Rules of Integrations
5.3.  Integrations of Algebric and Trigonometric functions by using different techniques

Fundamentals of Pharmacy (Theory)
PHT-307                                                                                                                      Cr. Hrs. 3

1.      Pharmacy Orientation:
1.1.  Introduction and orientation to the Professional of pharmacy in relation to Hospital Pharmacy, Retail pharmacy, Industrial pharmacy, Forensic pharmacy, Pharmaceutical education and research etc.

2.      History and Literature of Pharmacy:
2.1.  A survey of the history of pharmacy through ancient, Greek and Arab periods with special reference to contribution of Muslim scientists to pharmacy and allied sciences.
2.2.  An introduction of various official books. Pharmacopoeia, formularies, codices, abstracts, etc

3.      Physico-chemical Principles:
3.1.  Solutions:
3.1.1.  Introduction
3.1.2.  Types
3.1.3.  Concentration expressions
3.1.4.  Ideal and real solution
3.1.5.  Colligative properties     Mathematical derivations     Applications in pharmacy     Molecular weight determinations
3.1.6.  Distribution co-efficient and its applications in pharmacy.
3.2.  Solubilization:
3.2.1.  Solubility
3.2.2.  Factors affecting solubility
3.2.3.  Surfactants    Properties    Types
3.2.4.  Micelles
3.2.5.  Formulation and types
3.3.  lonization:
3.3.1.  pH
3.3.2.  pH indicators
3.3.3.  pKa,
3.3.4.  buffers
3.3.5.  buffer's equation
3.3.6.  Isotonic solutions and their applications in pharmacy.
3.4.  Hydrolysis:
3.4.1.  Types and protection of drugs against hydrolysis.

4.      Micromeritics:
4.1.1.  Particle size and shapes
4.1.2.  Distribution of particles
4.1.3.  Methods of determination of particle size
4.1.4.  Importance of particle size in Pharmacy

5.      Physicochemical Processes:
5.1.  Precipitation:
5.1.1.  Process of precipitation and its applications in Pharmacy.
5.2.  Crystallization:
5.2.1.  Types of crystals
5.2.2.  Mechanism and methods of crystallization
5.2.3.  Applications in Pharmacy.
5.3.  Distillation:
5.3.1.  Simple Distillation
5.3.2.  Fractional Distillation
5.3.3.  Steam Distillation
5.3.4.  Vacuum Distillation
5.3.5.  Destructive distillation
5.3.6.  Applications in Pharmacy.
5.4.  Miscellaneous Processes:
5.4.1.       Efflorescence
5.4.2.       Deliquescence
5.4.3.       Lyophillization
5.4.4.       Elutriation
5.4.5.       Exiccation
5.4.6.       Ignition
5.4.7.       Sublimation
5.4.8.       Fusion
5.4.9.       Calcination
5.4.10.  Adsorption
5.4.11.  Decantation
5.4.12.  Evaporation
5.4.13.  Vaporization
5.4.14.  Centrifugation
5.4.15.  Dessication
5.4.16.  Levigation
5.4.17.  Trituration

Anatomy (Theory)
PHL-309                                                                                                                      Cr. Hrs. 3

1.      Introduction
1.1.  Anatomical Terminologies
1.2.  Definition. Cell, tissue, organ system.

2.      Structure of Cell
2.1.  Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Organcelles, Nucleus, Cell cycle

3.      Tissue of Body
3.1.  Types of tissues with examples
3.1.1.  Epithelial Tissue: General characters, classification.
3.1.2.  Connective Tissue: Structure, types   Connective tissue proper.   Cartilage. Bones structure and types of bones and Joints
3.1.3.  Muscle: Structure of- Skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle.

4.      Cardiovascular System
4.1.  Heart
4.1.1.     Structure of Heart
4.1.2.     Location of Heart
4.1.3.     Blood Supply to Heart.
4.2.  Blood Vessels
4.2.1.     Main blood vessels arising & entering the heart
4.2.2.     Types of blood vessels with examples

5.      Elementary System
5.1.  Name and structure of different parts of elementary system and their inter-relationship

6.      Urinary System
6.1.  Name and structure of organs of urinary system and their inter-relationship

7.      Reproductive System
7.1.  Male and Female reproductive systems
7.2.  Name, structure and association of the organs.

8.      Endocrine System
8.1.  Pituitary gland—structure and relation to hypothalamus.
8.2.  Thyroid gland—structure.
8.3.  Adrenal gland—structure.

9.      Nervous System
9.1.  Introduction: Cells of Nervous System (Neuron), Accessory cells of N.S
9.2.  Organization of N.S.
9.2.1.     Central Nervous System         Brain   Meninges,   Cerebrum—cerebral Lobes. Ventricals   Cerebellum—Anatomy of Cerebellum  Brain Stem—MidBrain. Pons. Medulla Oblongata.   Diencephalon. Thalamus Hypothelamus   Cranial Nerves.         Spinal Cord   Meninges   C.S.F   Internal Structure   Sensory and Motor Pathway   Spinal Reflexes   Peripheral spinal Nerves.         Autonomic Nervous System   Sympathetic N.S.   Parasympathetic Nervous System.

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry (Theory)
PHL – 311                                                                                                                   Cr. Hrs. 3

1.      General Introduction and Basic Biochemical Principles
1.1.  Role of pharmaceutical Biochemistry in the health Professional
1.2.  Nature of Biochemical reactions

2.      Basic Chemistry of Biomolecules (Nature, Classification etc.)
2.1.  Carbohydrates:
2.1.1.       Chemistry
2.1.2.       Classification
2.1.3.       Reactions of Carbohydrates
2.1.4.       Optical activity
2.1.5.       Biological and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates.
2.2.  Lipids:
2.2.1.  Chemistry of Fatty acids and Lipids
2.2.2.  Classification (Saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids, Simple, Complex and derived lipids)
2.2.3.  Reactions of Fatty acids and other Lipids
2.2.4.  Essential fatty acids
2.2.5.  Biological and pharmaceutical importance of lipids.
2.3.  Proteins and Amino acids:
2.3.1.       Chemistry
2.3.2.       Classification of proteins and amino acids
2.3.3.       Reactions of proteins and amino acids
2.3.4.       Organizational levels
2.3.5.       Macromolecular nature of proteins
2.3.6.       Biological and pharmaceutical importance of proteins and amino acids.
2.4.  Nucleic acids
2.4.1.       Chemistry
2.4.2.       Types (DNA, RNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
2.4.3.       Purine and Pyrimidine bases
2.4.4.       Nuceiosides
2.4.5.       Nucelotides
2.4.6.       Structures of nucleic acids, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of nucleic acids.
2.5.  Vitamins:
2.5.1.       Chemistry
2.5.2.       Classification (Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins)
2.5.3.       Biological and pharmaceutical importance of vitamins.
2.6.  Hormones:
2.6.1.       Chemistry
2.6.2.       Classification (Proteinous and non-proteinous hormones, amino acid derivatives, steroids)
2.6.3.       Biological and pharmaceutical importance of hormones.
2.7.  Enzymes:          Chemistry          Classification          Mode of action          Kinetics (Michaelis-Menten Equation and some modifications)          Inhibition          Activation          Specificity          Allosteric enzymes          Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction      Biological and pharmaceutical importance      Mechanism of action of some important enzymes (Chymotrypsin, Ribonuclease).

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry (Lab)
PHL-313                                                                                                                      Cr. Hrs. 2

1.      Qualitative analysis of: Carbohydrates, Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins, Lipids and Sterols (Cholesterol) Bile salts and billirubin, Blood analysis - Sugar, Uric acid, Billirubin, Cholesterol and Creatinine.

2.      Quantitative analysis of: Carbohydrates - Glucose (reducing sugar) and any other carbohydrate using Benedict and Anthrone method, Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins using Biuret and Ninhydrin (Spectrophotometric) method. Analysis of normal and abnormal components of Urine - Sugar, Uric acid, Billirubin, Cholesterol and Creatinine.

Physiology & Histology (Theory)
PHL-315                                                                                                                      Cr. Hrs. 3

1.      BLOOD
1.1.     Composition of blood (RBC, WBC and Platelets)
1.2.     Functions and Genesis of the formed elements
1.3.     Fate of Red Blood cells
1.4.     Jaundice
1.5.     Reaction of Blood
1.6.     Blood groups
1.7.     Rh factors
1.8.     E.S.R.
1.9.     Blood volume
1.10. Functions of Spleen
1.11. Blood coagulation
1.12. Hemophilia,. Anaemias- classification.

2.1.           Properties of the cardiac muscle
2.2.           Origin and conduction of the heart beat
2.3.           Cardiac cycle
2.4.           ECG
2.5.           Heart sounds
2.6.           Cardiac output
2.7.           Stroke volume and heart rate
2.8.           Nerve supply of the Heart
2.9.           Coronary, Pulmonary, and skin circulation
2.10.       Blood pressure
2.11.       Vasomotor system.
2.12.       Arterial pulse.
2.13.       Venous pulse,
2.14.       Capillary circulation
2.15.       Axon reflex
2.16.       Triple response
2.17.       Circulatory changes in exercise
2.18.       Composition and circulation of lymph
2.19.       Haemorrhage & Shock

3.1.  Mechanics of respiration
3.2.  Intrathoracic, Intrapulmonary pressure
3.3.  Pulmonary ventilation
3.4.  Lungs volume and capacities
3.5.  Composition of Inspired Air, Expired Air and Alveolar Air
3.6.  Carriage of O2 and CO2 by the blood
3.7.  Regulation of breathing(Nervous & Chemical control)
3.8.  Respiratory changes in exercise
3.9.  Pneumonias, eh. Emphysema, Bronchial Asthma.

4.1.  Mastication. Deglutition
4.2.  Digestive juices-saliva, Gastric juice, pancreatic juice. Bile and, intestinal juices; their composition
4.3.  Functions and mechanism of secretion
4.4.  Movements of the stomach and intestines
4.5.  Functions of large intestine
4.6.  Defecation
4.7.  Functions of liver and gall bladder.

5.1.  Urine formation
5.2.  Composition of urine
5.3.  G.F.R.
5.4.  Urea clearance
5.5.  Formation of concentrated and diluted urine.


a)     Introduction of cell: General structure of tissues in different systems of Body.
b)     Basic Tissues: Epthelium (classification, shape, distribution and function). Supporting/ connective tissue including bones and cartilage. (Classification, Distribution and Function) Muscular Tissue. (Types, distribution and function) Nervous Tissue (neuron and its types Neuroglia — classification and distribution).
c)     Gastrointestinal tract: GIT including exocrine organs: Liver, pancreas and Gall Bladder
d)     Respiratory system: Respiratory system including Nasal cavity, Larynx, Trachea, Lung.
e)     Cardio vascular System: Heart, Artery, Vein, Lymphatic

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